9 Ridiculous Rules About TOP QUALITY RESIDENCES

A Qualified Personal Residence Trust (QPRT) is an excellent tool for persons with large estates to transfer a principal residence or vacation home at the lowest possible gift tax value. The overall rule is that if a person makes a gift of property in which they retains some benefit, the property is still valued (for gift tax purposes) at its full fair market value. In other words, there is no reduction of value for the donor’s retained benefit.

In 1990, to ensure that a principal residence or vacation residence could pass to heirs without forcing a sale of the residence to pay estate taxes, Congress passed the QPRT legislation. That legislation allows an exception to the general rule described above. As a result, for gift tax purposes, a reduction in the residence’s fair market value is allowed for the donor’s retained interest.

For example, assume a father, age 65, has a vacation residence valued at $1 million. Ki Residences Singapore He transfers the residence to a QPRT and retains the proper to utilize the vacation residence (rent free) for 15 years. At the end of the 15 year term, the trust will terminate and the residence will undoubtedly be distributed to the grantor’s children. Alternatively, the residence can stay in trust for the advantage of the children. Assuming a 3% discount rate for the month of the transfer to the QPRT (this rate is published monthly by the IRS), today’s value into the future gift to the children is only $396,710. This gift, however, can be offset by the grantor’s $1 million lifetime gift tax exemption. If the residence grows in value at the rate of 5% each year, the worthiness of the residence upon termination of the QPRT will be $2,078,928.

Assuming an estate tax rate of 45%, the estate tax savings will be $756,998. The net result is that the grantor will have reduced how big is his estate by $2,078,928, used and controlled the vacation residence for 15 additional years, utilized only $396,710 of his $1 million lifetime gift tax exemption, and removed all appreciation in the residence’s value during the 15 year term from estate and gift taxes.

While there is a present-day lapse in the estate and generation-skipping transfer taxes, it’s likely that Congress will reinstate both taxes (perhaps even retroactively) time during 2010. Or even, on January 1, 2011, the estate tax exemption (which was $3.5 million in 2009 2009) becomes $1 million, and the top estate tax rate (that was 45% in 2009 2009) becomes 55%.

Despite the fact that the grantor must forfeit all rights to the residence at the end of the word, the QPRT document can provide the grantor the proper to rent the residence by paying fair market rent once the term ends. Moreover, if the QPRT was created as a “grantor trust” (see below), by the end of the word, the rent payments will never be subject to taxes to the QPRT nor to the beneficiaries of the QPRT. Essentially, the rent payments will undoubtedly be tax-free gifts to the beneficiaries of the QPRT – further reducing the grantor’s estate.

The longer the QPRT term, the smaller the gift. However, if the grantor dies through the QPRT term, the residence will be brought back in to the grantor’s estate for estate tax purposes. But since the grantor’s estate will also receive full credit for just about any gift tax exemption applied towards the initial gift to the QPRT, the grantor is no worse off than if no QPRT had been created. Moreover, the grantor can “hedge” against a premature death by creating an irrevocable life insurance coverage trust for the benefit of the QPRT beneficiaries. Thus, if the grantor dies through the QPRT term, the income and estate tax-free insurance proceeds may be used to pay the estate tax on the residence.

The QPRT can be designed as a “grantor trust”. Which means that the grantor is treated as the owner of the QPRT for tax purposes. Therefore, through the term, all property taxes on the residence will be deductible to the grantor. For the same reason, if the grantor’s primary residence is transferred to the QPRT, the grantor would qualify for the $500,000 ($250,000 for single persons) capital gain exclusion if the principal residence were sold through the QPRT term. However, unless each of the sales proceeds are reinvested by the QPRT in another residence within two (2) years of the sale, a portion of any “excess” sales proceeds should be returned to the grantor every year during the remaining term of the QPRT.

A QPRT isn’t without its drawbacks. First, there’s the risk mentioned previously that the grantor does not survive the set term. Second, a QPRT can be an irrevocable trust – once the residence is placed in trust there is no turning back. Third, the residence will not get a step-up in tax basis upon the grantor’s death. Instead, the basis of the residence in the hands of the QPRT beneficiaries is equivalent to that of the grantor. Fourth, the grantor forfeits all rights to occupy the residence by the end of term unless, as stated above, the grantor opts to rent the residence at fair market value. Fifth, the grantor’s $13,000 annual gift tax exclusion ($26,000 for married couples) cannot be used in reference to transfers to a QPRT. Sixth, a QPRT is not an ideal tool to transfer residences to grandchildren due to generation skipping tax implications. Finally, at the end of the QPRT term, the house is “uncapped” for property tax purposes which, depending on state law, you could end up increasing property taxes.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *